CHAPTER 3 – What causes Type 2 diabetes?

High blood glucose is the most obvious clinical feature of the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), but it is only a symptom of disease and not the disease itself. So, what is T2DM? What causes it? What is the etiology of T2DM?

This is a crucial question. Without understanding the cause, it is impossible to devise a rational treatment. T2DM is accepted as a disease of excessive insulin resistance, which causes the high blood glucose readings that characterise the disease. This immediately suggests an important conundrum. If the problem is high insulin resistance, then why is treatment entirely directed towards correcting the high blood glucose?

It is far more logical and effective to treat the insulin resistance. To do so, we must understand what causes insulin resistance.


Over a period of years, you move from pre-diabetes, to diabetes taking a single medication, then two then three and then finally large doses of insulin. Here’s the thing. If you are taking more and more medications to keep your blood sugars at the same level, your diabetes is getting worse!

The blood sugars got better with insulin, but the diabetes got worse. This unfortunately happens to virtually every patient. The higher dose of medications only hides the blood sugar by cramming it into the engorged body. The diabetes looks better, but actually is getting worse.


What happens over ten or twenty years? Every single part of the body just starts to rot.

This is precisely why T2DM, unlike virtually any other disease, affects every single part of the body. Every organ suffers the long- term effects of the excessive sugar load. Your eyes rot – and you go blind. Your kidneys rot – and you need dialysis. You heart rots – and you get heart attacks and heart failure. Your brain rots – and you get Alzheimer’s disease. Your liver rots – and you get fatty liver disease and cirrhosis. Your legs rot – and you get diabetic foot ulcers. Your nerves rot – and you get diabetic neuropathy. No part of your body is spared.

Medications and insulin do nothing to slow down the progression of this organ damage, because they do not eliminate the toxic sugar load. We’ve known this rather inconvenient fact since 2008. No less than 7 multinational, multi-centre, randomised controlled trials of tight blood glucose control with medications (ACCORD, ADVANCE, VADT, ORIGIN, ELIXA, TECOS and SAVOR) have all failed to demonstrate reductions in heart disease, the major killer of diabetic patients. We pretended that using medications to lower blood sugar makes people healthier. But it’s only been a lie. All because we’ve overlooked a singular truth. You can’t use drugs to cure a dietary disease.

Extract from Chapter 3 – Diabetes Unpacked, by Dr Jason Fung

CHAPTER 3 – What causes Type 2 diabetes?

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